CP noted, "Your definition of 'laws' is that identical parts or waves under identical circumstances always give identical structures."
"Is there something that is identical?" He asked sceptically.
"First of all, I would describe 'identical' as follows: A substance - with or without mass - which in all its properties agrees with another. It follows that both also run according to identical laws.
If 'identical substances under identical circumstances' did not achieve an identical result, then either the substances or the circumstances were not identical.
Then: Everything consists of elementary particles and these are subject to quantum mechanics.
From this follows the realization of this science: The properties of the quantum particles are not limited to the local space in which they are located, but are also influenced non-local. It follows, then, that when it intervenes, they will be subject to different laws. Thus, the identity of the elementary particles in the local constellation may be suspended. Because then something new arises and correspondingly different laws act.
So, the starting sentence should be modified: the more similar the parts and the circumstances, the more similar are the resulting structures or laws. "
"What does 'non-local' mean?"
"For our macro world, that is, the world we usually see, means locally that events only have an immediate impact on their immediate spatial environment.
This does not apply to the microworld, where quantum mechanics prevail. Here too, remote effects, such as quantum entanglement, have an influence on the direct spatial environment. This is called non-local.
Quantum mechanics is not local, but of course it works according to laws. "
"What is called quantum entanglement?"
"That two elementary particles are connected to each other, even if they are spatially far apart, for example, a million miles. If one particle changes, the other as a whole changes without the slightest time delay.
One should distinguish between the classical physics described by Newton, which is generally governed by reasonable laws, and quantum physics discovered by Max Planck, whose laws give man conceptual difficulties. "
"Is there something in the content of the universe that does not run according to laws?"
"No, laws are inherent to everything."
"You also claim that all laws are eternal," CP continued.
"That's right, the same substances under the same circumstances always do the same. You can never change a law. But as soon as one subtracts or adds something from a substance, different laws result.
This can be seen, for example, in the genes: If the DNA is modified at certain points, another guideline, which is used via an RNA message, for example, to coordinate the construction of proteins from amino acid building blocks. It became the substances that are laws, so rewritten and thereby produced something different. "
As an example, the gestalt theory is also well suited. It says that you can grasp the essence of something only in its entirety, not when you reduce it to the individual pieces that make it up. From the totality, which ultimately always creates the brain, thus results in a new lawfulness and view the human.
"Where did the laws come from, who made them?" CP asked.
"No one did that, no more than anyone created the universe. They are, as I said, inherent in the substances. There are no substances without laws. So, the formula applies: substances = laws. Since every formula is also reversed, one can also say: laws = substances. "
"The laws are therefore in the substances or the respective environment," CP considered aloud.
"Anyone can verify that," I nodded. "The same things - or substances - in the same circumstances always do the same. That is a universal law.
This is valid in the macro world as well as in the micro world, the world of the smallest particle waves. Except that the microworld is more vulnerable to impacts, such as interactions, and the laws are much more difficult to pinpoint here. "
"Why did only a few people realize that everything is legal?" CP asked thoughtfully.
"Because the world is constantly moving. This movement is constantly creating new constellations, each of which runs according to other laws.
For the survival would be the realization that everything runs according to laws, not important. It is important to react appropriately to changes. Therefore, there was no aim to verify exactly whether the same substances always achieve the same result under the same circumstances - which is the definition of the laws.
But anyone who tries to refute this sentence will come to the conclusion that it cannot be invalidated. "
"It occurs to me," said CP, "that in two consecutive experiments in the double-slit experiment, one photon usually throws different patterns on the screen behind the double slit under the same circumstances. Since everything runs according to laws and the same conditions prevail in both experiments, exactly the same pattern ought to appear. "
"The experimental setup in the double-slit experiment looks like this," I began my answer: "In a plate two parallel slots are inserted. Behind it is a flat white plate, or a screen in this way, which is larger than that with the double slit. Then you send about a photon - a light particle - in the direction of the plate. If you do not observe or measure it, it goes through both columns at the same time, throwing an interference pattern on the screen. If one measures it, it goes through only one column and shows only one point.
(The reason is always the observation device that man uses).
If you make a second attempt with another photon under the same circumstances, then usually no identical pattern appears on the screen.
As a consequence, the photons or the circumstances were not identical. So, both attempts ran according to other laws. "
"You mean, if the results of two similar substances are not the same under the same conditions, then the substances or the circumstances were not the same, that is, were there other laws?"
"That should be clear. By the way: If you try to measure the orbit of a particle, then it collapses. One has added something - the measurement - and that creates another law. This collapse of the wave function is characteristic in quantum systems when observed or measured. The previously superimposed states - an amount of possibilities that cannot be described - immediately become a well-defined, that is, a clear structure.
This can only be observed in the micro world, not in the macro world. "
"Why is that?" Asked CP.
"It depends on how big the amount of microscopic parts like elementary particles, atoms, molecules, etc., that make up all of us, is. If it exceeds a certain mass, then the laws of quantum mechanics no longer work. Here, there are only the laws of classical mechanics that show clear structures. "
"So, the elemental pines lose their quantum properties when they go into macroscopic dimensions?"
"That's right," I nodded.
"What about the causality?", CP was still curious. "It says yes, that every effect has a cause."
"This is valid in the macro world as well as in the micro world, the world of quanta. In the macro world we live in, this is obvious if you look for the cause long enough.
In the micro world this is not immediately clear. Since it is much more difficult to measure or observe in the quantum world without interfering with the process, it is very often the case that coincidence occurs here. Coincidence is called ignorance. Here, of course, causality is also present because the inherent laws of elementary parts and the local or non-local environment are the cause of the effects. That's how they build their structures. "
"So, the problem is not," concluded CP, "that in the quantum world, not everything works according to laws, but that one can observe and measure them much more difficult. So, you're dealing with a measurement or observation problem in general? "
"The word 'coincidence' is often used for this," I nodded.
"Here comes a particular phrase that should not be forgotten: 'Everything has the goal of forming a structure according to the laws.' If you look for it, quantum mechanics loses the mystery and you take it for granted."
Now another question came to CP: "One cannot predict when exactly one radioactive atom will disintegrate. How is that? "
"If we knew exactly the inside of an atom," I answered, "all the laws and interactions with its local and nonlocal environment, then we could also make an accurate prediction of when that atom will collapse. This is virtually impossible because the atom is a cloud of electromagnetic fields that are constantly vibrating. It is not a static something, but something changing, dynamic. It is subject to quantum mechanics. A major cause of the timing of the decay will be the tunnel effect. "
"What does that mean?"
"If an atomic particle can overcome a potential barrier of finite height even though its energy is less than the height of the barrier. In quantum mechanics, like many others, this is not possible in classical physics. "
"Then the name 'tunnel effect' is actually wrong, it should read: Overcome effect."
"Since quantum-mechanical effects are difficult or impossible to illustrate, we prefer to use the name tunnel effect."
"It's breathtaking how different the worlds of classical and quantum physics are," marvelled CP.
"How could one imagine elementary particles, such as an electron that is simultaneously wave and particle?" He was curious.
"All elementary particles are subject to this fact. We are used to introducing ourselves to one or the other, for example in quick succession. Imagining a part in two exactly opposite properties at the same time is not possible for us, for example, to think of a cat as dead and alive at the same time.
An aid can be the yin and yang symbol. This is meant to express that opposing properties are one. When immersed in it, this image dissolves into a non-objective cloud. Such a cloud is also the reality of the elementary particles. "
"Atoms are made up of elementary particles, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, (and smaller elements, such as quarks, leptons, etc.), that is, virtual clouds," CP considered.
"Yes, atoms and their components are clouds, in which particles and wave form a unit. They run according to their inherent laws that determine when they fall apart.
That man can make no predictions by observing or measuring the decay of an atom, should be clear after what has just been said. Maybe one can still imagine the virtual clouds, but then also recognize the respective laws, according to which they expire, is due to the fact that we can neither measure nor observe them - I refer here to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle - virtually
"Well, just because we cannot make a precise prediction about the decay of an atom, and then conclude that something is happening out of nothing, has no basis whatsoever," concluded CP.
"That's clear," I agreed. "The particle-wave clouds are unimaginative to humans about the exact process. They are, as I said, neither exactly to measure nor to observe. Unless you try the math. Because this can make very accurate predictions with the probability calculus.
But that is only possible because everything is legal. And because the number of possible variations in a system is very diverse, but finite.
That's why not everything is possible.
Albert Einstein once said, 'How can mathematics, after all a product of human thought, regardless of experience, really match the realities?'
My Answer: Because the real thing is governed by laws. And because the particular set of structures involved in this relationship is limited.
This is to be understood, because mathematical probability calculus otherwise could make no clear statements.
Since we are currently in probability calculations: Due to the ever-growing data storage, the amounts of data, from which one can obtain results by specific questions, gigantic enlarged and they are constantly expanding to ever-increasing orders of magnitude, which are no longer manageable.
This amount of data can be made relatively small by goals that arise from certain questions.
This amount would still be far too large to make one hundred percent statements. Therefore, probabilities are expected here and then, depending on the accuracy of the question, provide good answers. "
"You mean that if you want to get answers from masses of data, is that only at the expense of accuracy?"
"That's inevitable. But even so, one can get answers that are likely to answer the questions. "
"In these cases," CP considered, "it is no longer the case that the calculator uses individual facts to come to a conclusion, but a lot of data that can only be expressed in powers."
"Yes, this form is very similar to the process in the brain, which also has to process huge amounts of data. An example: human beings absorb about 11 million bits every second. The brain compares and uses this to construct the world according to its goals. This is only possible with the cognitive clouds that do not arise from the individual factors, but from large amounts of data. "
"They say chaos, meaning complete disorder," CP commented. "You say, even in chaos, everything goes according to laws?"
"With the disorder, do you mean that predictions about the course are not possible?" I asked back.
"Yes," CP nodded.
"And if predictions are not possible, then there is disorder?" I asked further.
"That's the way it is said."
"Well, in chaos move parts or particles, waves. Why should not this process be legal? "
"As I said, predictions about the course are not possible."
"It's the same knitting pattern as what we just discussed," I shook my head. "Because you cannot predict something, it is concluded that there are no laws, and we use the word coincidence. Is not that too easy? Because 'structure' can of course also mean 'disorder'. In this case, the goal is simply that processes take place according to laws and not that the parts form into a certain order according to the imagination of man. "
CP considered. "True," he said then, "it has yet to be proven. In fact, the chaotic behaviour we see is no proof that there are no laws here. "
I nodded. "Chaos also means the unpredictability due to the initial state of a system. For example, assuming two seemingly identical initial states, under the same circumstances, and the prediction of the result is different, then one has not included all the components that play a role in the initial state. "
"That would mean that even in chaos, everything is determined, but you did not know all components or included," thought CP.
"This is the scientific chaos theory.
The opinion that not everything is done according to substances and laws, but is in this respect like fast. Out of ignorance and because we cannot dive into the chaos inside to see it closely. Not infrequently, to prove something mystical.
This scheme is used whenever it is difficult for a person to take a deeper look at what is happening. Like the dream, which often seems completely incomprehensible. "
"But still running according to laws?" CP asked again.
"For sure. Neurons work according to laws.
But you quickly reach its limits if you want to make concrete statements.
How else than by law should the substances in the universe run out? "
"Well," replied CP, "there are people who say, by the hand of God."
"Well, can you imagine that, for example, physical laws can be changed by a hand movement of God or no longer apply?"
"People who say that are not serious in my view. They live in their world, in their midpoints and these simply exclude the facts, the reality with their complexes. Thus, man escapes reality. "
"But they also argue: Can my feeling be wrong, that tells me with absolute certainty that God exists? Can my feelings tell me something wrong? "
"There is a clear answer to that: of course. If you look closely at his own behaviour, the question will answer itself. How often have people been deceived by their feelings?
By the way, "I said," laws like that did not exist before the seventeenth century. It was all destined for God by the people living then. "
"But after that," wondered CP, "it became more and more clear what role the laws play."
"Laws have the connotation of compulsion. People do not like compulsion. They prefer to believe that they decide to have their freedom. This is not conducive to the truth, but to their faith.
And then there are the cultural traditions that have carried on the belief in God from generation to generation. That was also gladly accepted, among other things, because it could temporarily escape the harsh reality. "
"It is said religions are meaningful," CP interjected.
"Well, if you look at the history of religions, then you can conclude that they are nonsensical, to say the least moderately."
"But where should man get the meaning of his life? And what I always wanted to ask: what exactly does sense mean? "
"Gait, travel, walk, take a direction. So, meaning is the goal.
On the question of the meaning of life: You can help other people, you can stand for tolerance, you can lead a self-determined life for your most important goals, etc. These goals are already laid out in people. For example, about the so-called mirror neurons, which I call mirror midpoints. One sees or interprets the other, this stimulates similarities, which again activate midpoints in one. Thus, one can feel and sympathize similarly. No religion is needed to respond to it.
If you look at what reasons the religions cite for their existence! And what religious beliefs have already done to other people's atrocities.
It is only people who have created the religions and who have then enforced other people according to their own, sometimes very selfish goals.
If one translates meaning with goal and looks at what religions have done, then one can only be warned against this 'meaningfulness'. "
"But what about the hold that faith gives people and from which they can draw strength?" Asked CP.
"That's another thing. This has nothing more to do with the external reality, but exclusively with the interior of man. There is no question that faith, as the midpoint, can help people to better face spiritual conflicts. "
"But is not it too sober when you say everything is legal?" CP still came to mind.
"Since all substances are inseparable from laws, you should just take it that way. Look around the world at how colourful she is: people with their behaviours and ideas, nature in all its manifestations. Of course, everything works according to laws. Is that really only sober to call? "
"I remember," CP changed the subject, "is the fact that everything works according to laws, for the people, for the society to accept at all?"
"That's a good question. You could have asked: Can people tell the truth? "
"So, the truth you're standing for," GP noted.
"Everyone has the opportunity to refute my truth or to find one's own.
I believe, following my truth, that one would then stand between the acceptance of reality and its own midpoints. For the goals in man, in society, of course, want to be realized. This is the truth in the way and it is probably rather ignored, because otherwise the goals would seem to be impossible to achieve.
For example, if someone stole something, it is understandable from the point of view that everything had to happen the way it did, but it does not fit with the values, goals of the people who demand punishment and retribution. "
"How could one unite these fundamental opposites?"
"Through tolerance and insight, on the one hand, saying it had to happen that way, and on the other hand, our rules are important to us. You could argue, "If you get off scot-free now, our rules would be in jeopardy. And more importantly, this would apply not just to this case, but eventually over time. That could lead to internal tensions in society.
This tension can only be resolved by judging, 'You have broken a rule that applies to all of us, including you, and that is why you must be punished.'
It's true that everything had to happen the way it did, but a society would break apart if you accepted everything and let everything go. Because it is held together by rules. "
"Where do these rules come from?"
"The ideas of good and evil are formed unconsciously or consciously, unwritten or written, for example through the primal structures in the human being, a cultural imprint, as goals in each group or society. These assessments then act more or less in the form of social norms and moral concepts in every member of society. "
"You mean," summed up CP, "who did something that harmed others, and believes he does not have to take responsibility for it, because: what had to happen, how it happened, should be remembered has violated the rules or laws of a group or society that would not be viable in the long run without them.
Because the opinion that others represent, their judgment, of course had to be done as it happened. Therefore, the offender cannot blame the judges for the verdict.
With the sentence: 'Everything's going according to laws', it should only be shown that everything had to happen the way it happened. "
"You have reproduced that well," I agreed.
"So, as far as possible, elements of understanding should be taken into account when assessing the sentence and should be included in the judgment," added CP.
"Yes, but most people will hardly worry about it because they just want to stay in their midst, and such insights are obstacles. So, they will have little understanding of the wrongdoing of other people (wrongdoing in terms of the goals of society). "
"But a big plus to the attitude that everything is predetermined," said CP, "is that you can come to terms with what happened in the past more quickly."
"That's true," I agreed. "It's even a huge gain, because it makes you live more in the present and is less shaped by the past.
For example, the anger that breaks out in some people when they have not reached their goal is not very meaningful in view of what we have just discussed.
This is especially true for mistakes we make. So, if we curse ourselves, it can be particularly destabilizing for one's self. "
"But humanly understandable," he interjected.
Another advantage of the attitude that everything had to be done as it happened is the tolerance that springs from the sentence and has a positive effect on the relationship of the midpoints in oneself and the coexistence with other people.
One more word about the punishments that people pronounce against others: A deed is usually judged by the degree to which one was hurt in one's feelings. These feelings, it is demanded, should also be compensated by the judges by punishment. "
"Since you've just addressed tolerance, I can think of people whose word is a foreign word: dictators."
"Yes, the best examples of intolerance are dictators. On the one hand I mean the dictators, who believe that everything has to be aligned with their own goals, such as in the family, in the group, in a company, etc., and of course, in particular, the dictatorships, the states, and only their own goals,
One reason is that many people believe that what they feel is right for others too. And the more power someone has, the more he can enforce this view.
It's a simple thing with the dictators: they want to and can to a large extent fight their own opinion and do not tolerate any other. Any means are right for them. They are people who ruthlessly pursue their own goals, live out their midpoints.
Often dictators are supported - in the beginning - because the people in them see the leader who makes everything better. "
"And how can one recognize a dictator even though he might try to change his coat?"
"The best indication is that it restricts or shuts down media that does not share its opinion."
"You mean, it's about him, ultimately cold up all opponents. These include, first of all, the media that he does not control, and then all those who criticize him or otherwise oppose him?”"
"Exactly, dictators are creating their own world. They surround themselves with people who agree with them - all others are ignored or, if necessary, eliminated. It is impossible that dictators surround themselves with people who contradict them. Exactly the opposite is the case.
And the stronger a dictator becomes, the more he loses grip. There are fewer and fewer voices to listen to. This is not rare his downfall.
Well, the world is as it is, people are as they are.
The sentence helps me: 'What happens must happen as it happens'.”
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